Jan 20, 2008

Food Fundamental 1

Food; something that is edible, or anything that we eat or drink everyday. Food will provide energy and replenish nutrients to keep our body healthy, physically and mentally.

Basically, foods is divided into 7 components;

1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Fats
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
7. Roughage / fiber


Carbohydrate provides energy for our body. It can be divided into two categories or sources,

1. Starch
2. Sugar

Starch can be found in rice, cereal, flour and potatoes. The effect of heat (cooking) on starch will increase its size and make it soft and sticky. Water will evaporate before absorb it again, The process is called; gelatinization.

Sugar can be found in many forms like glucose from sugar cane, fructose from fruit, maltose from cereal and lactose from milk.
The effect of heat on sugar will result in change in color and odor. It will melt and thicken until it becomes almost solid. This process is known as caramelization.


Protein functions as agent in building and repairing body tissue. It can be found in many food ingredients like fish, eggs, chicken, meat and soybean.

Protein will change from soft to firm, loose it moisture, change color and odor, when we cook. This is known as coagulation.

In some cases, protein can absorb odor or aroma as well (like eggs, fish).


Fats can be divided into two main categories
1. Animal fat- milk based product -butter, cheese, lard , whey
2. Vegetable fat- palm oil, coconut oil, sesame oil, margarine, shortening, soy oil, corn oil etc.

Fats stand in solid condition at room temperature. Smoke will be produced during cooking.


Vitamins can be divided into 2,

Fat soluble vitamin, will be destroyed during cooking, due to heat and fat being used. The vitamin is ADEK

Water-soluble vitamin will be lost during exposure of food toward moisture and water, which include washing and cooking/blanching. The vitamin will be B and C


Minerals exist on every food ingredient. It is important in building our bodies cells and help in proper functioning the body system, physically and mentally. Examples of minerals will be calcium, iron, iodine, and phosphorus.


80% of human and animal body content is water.
Water functions as a regulator body for temperature, and assists in digestion and absorption of food. Water is needed for blood and all secretions.

Fiber / Roughage

Fiber is considered as carbohydrate but it cannot be digested. It is also known as cellulose / unavailable carbohydrate.
Fiber helps in elimination of body waste and makes sure that the digestion track will function properly.
Fiber can be found in most fruits like kiwi, orange, yogurt and bread.

Issues on Food

1. How much food to take? (Food Pyramid and Islamic Perspective)

2. Food Borne Diseases – Avian Flu, Mad Cows and JE-Nipah Virus